The effectiveness of laws is determined by circumstances affecting their enforcement. To assess such circumstances for complete background verify (CBC) and straw buy laws for firearm gross sales, we examined prosecutions for CBC and straw buy violations in Pennsylvania and CBC violations in Maryland. We generated pre-put up variables and performed t-assessments to evaluate variations in the imply quantity of prosecutions filed following adjustments to the legal environments. The annual quantity of prosecutions for straw buy violations elevated considerably in Pennsylvania following the passage of a legislation that strengthened penalties for these violations (distinction in means = +1310.86, P=zero.003). The annual quantity of prosecutions for CBC violations decreased considerably in Maryland following a courtroom resolution that narrowed the definition of a firearm transfer making enforcement tougher (distinction in means = −20.52, P=zero.026). Our findings recommend enforcement is probably going influenced by the penalties related to violating these laws and the interpretation of the language of the laws.